Search ECL

Browse ECL
Internet ResourcesACS ResourcesDemonstrationVisualizationData SetsProblem SetCourse Home PageModelingLabsCase StudiesTextbooksHome


Case Study in Environmental Chemistry....

Case Study 4: Kinetics of Carbaryl Hydrolysis

Author: Sarunya Hengpraprom and Cindy M.Lee, Environmental Engineering and Science, Clemson University.

For further detail choose the appropriate section

References

1. Rodvang SJ and Simpkins ST. 2001. Agricultural contaminants in quaternary aquitards: A review of occurrence and fate in North America. Hydrogeology Journal. 9: 44-57

2. Walker WW. 1984. Development of a fate/toxicology-screening test. EPA Report No. EPA-600/4-84-074; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Research Laboratory, Gulf Breeze, FL.

3. U.S Environmental Protection Agency (1991). Methods for measuring the aquatic toxicity of effluents and receiving waters to freshwater and marine organisms, 4th ed., edited by C.I. Weber. EPA-600/4-900/027.

4. Mill T. 1982. Hydrolysis and oxidation processes in the environment. Environ. Toxicol Chem. 1: 135-141.

5. Mabey WR, Mill T, and Hendry DG. 1980. In Test Protocols for Environmental Processes: Hydrolysis. EPA Final Report. EPA contract. 68-03-2227.

6. Mabey WR and Mill T. 1978. Critical review of hydrolysis of organic compounds in water under environmental condition. J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data. 7: 383-415.

7. Mill T, Partridge WR, Mabey WR, and Bawol R. 1980. Evaluation and optimization of hydrolysis screening protocols. Final Draft Report. Subcontract T6417 (7197)-031 to Battelle Columbus Laboratories.

8. Schwarzenbach RP, Gschwend PM, and Imoden DM. .1993. Environmental Organic Chemistry. New York: Wiley and Sons.

9. Wolfe LN, Mingelgrin U, and Miller GC. 1990. Abiotic transformations in water, sediments, and soil. Pesticides in the soil environment. SSSA book series 2.

10. Nirmalakhandan N and Speece R. 1988. The use of quantitative structure activity relationships for predicting rates of environmental hydrolysis process. Pure and Applied Chem. 63: 1667-1676.

11. Wolfe LN. 1980. Determining the role of hydrolysis in the fate of organics in natural waters. Dynamics, Exposure, and Hazard Assessment of Toxic Chemicals. 163-177.

12. Drossman H, Johnson H, and Mill T. 1988. Structure activity relationships for environmental processes 1: Hydrolysis of esters and carbamates. Chemosphere. 17: 1509-1530.

13. Batchelor J. 1996. The effect of dissolved organic carbon on the neutral and alkaline hydrolysis of carbaryl. Thesis. Department of Environmental Engineering and Science. Clemson University.

14. Faust S and Gomaa H. 1972. Chemical hydrolysis of some organic phosphorous and carbamate pesticides in aquatic environments. Environ. Letters. 3: 171-201.