|ECE 847 Digital Image Processing
This course introduces students to the basic concepts, issues, and algorithms in
digital image processing and computer vision. Topics include image formation,
projective geometry, convolution, Fourier analysis and other transforms,
pixel-based processing, segmentation, texture, detection, stereo, and motion.
The goal is to equip students with the skills and tools needed to manipulate
images, along with an appreciation for the difficulty of the problems. Students
will implement several standard algorithms, evaluate the strengths and weakness
of various approaches, and explore a topic of their own choosing in a course
HW1: Floodfill, due 8/31 |
Quiz #1, 9/7|
||Filters and edge detection||
HW2: Pixels and regions, due 9/14|
||Filters and edge detection||
Quiz #2, 9/21|
HW3: Edge detection, due 9/28|
Quiz #3, 10/5|
HW4: Segmentation, due 10/12|
Quiz #4, 10/19|
HW5: Stereo matching, due 10/26|
Quiz #5, 11/2|
HW6: Lucas-Kanade tracking, due 11/9|
Quiz #6, 11/16|
Quiz #7, 12/7|
Readings to complement the lectures:
Computer vision in the news:
- Sonka et al., Region-based shape representation and description
- Robyn Owens,
Mathematical morphology (dilation and erosion)
- R. Fisher et al.,
- Bill Green,
edge detection tutorial
- Bob Fisher et al.,
Canny edge detector
- Michael Bach, Muller-Lyer
- Various authors,
- Serge Beucher,
Roerdink and Meijster,
- Sylvain Bougnoux,
Learning epipolar geometry
- Nikos Paragios,
Level set tutorial; J.
Sethian's level set page
Wang, various lectures
TIFF specification document (color spaces and JPEG)
AIM-DP (color spaces)
Introduction to Wavelets;
Help organizing your digital photos, CBS News, Feb. 9, 2006 (Riya)
'Silent drowning' pool girl saved by underwater cameras, Times Online, Aug. 31, 2005
- Courtrooms could host virtual crime scenes, New Scientist.com, March 10, 2005
Sportvision virtual first-down markers
Basketball buddies build a computerized shot doctor, USA Today, Feb. 7, 2003
Infiniti advanced lane departure warning system
Infiniti Around View Monitor,
Nissan Around View Monitor, 2007
Chrysler automobile uses CMOS cameras for smart headlights, IEEE Spectrum,
Apr. 2006 (Gentex SmartBeam)
Lexus uses computer vision
for automatic parallel parking, IEEE Spectrum, Apr. 2006 (Intelligent
Electronic vision unblocks
the 'blind spot', IEEE Spectrum, Apr. 2006 (Volvo's
Blind-Spot Information System)
Car, park thyself (Toyota's automatic parking feature), CBS News, Jan. 15,
- Content-Aware Image Sizing
Fly-Eye Inspired Speed Sensor
Vision in biological systems:
- P. Gurney,
Is our 'inverted' retina really 'bad design'?, Technical Journal,
- C. Wieland, Seeing back
to front, Creation, 1996 (see also
An eye for
creation, Creation, 1996)
- J. Sarfati, Can it bee?,
Creation, 2003 -- honeybees using optic flow for navigation
- Centeye -- obstacle avoidance using optic flow
- C. Stammers,
Trilobite technology, Creation, 1993
- S. M. Gon, The trilobite eye
- J. Sarfati, Lobster eyes: brilliant geometric design, Creation, 2001
- Sight in
British garden birds
- Color vision in
- P. Gurney, Our
eye movements and their control: Part 1, Technical Journal, 2002
- P. Gurney, Our
eye movements and their control: Part 2, Technical Journal, 2003
- C. Wieland, New eyes
for blind cave fish, 2000
- T. Wagner,
the eye, Creation, 1994
- D. E. Stoltzmann,
The specified complexity of retinal imagery, CRSQ, 43(1):4-12, June
- Eye Design
Book -- overview of eyes in animal world
- Human visual system:
Computer vision companies:
Additional computer vision
Resources for current students (restricted access,
not open to the public)
In the assignments, you will implement several fundamental algorithms in C/C++,
documenting your findings is an accompanying report for each assignment.
C/C++ is chosen for its fundamental importance, ubiquity,
and efficiency (which is crucial to image processing and computer vision).
For your convenience, you are encouraged to use the latest version of the
Blepo computer vision library.
Your code must compile under Visual Studio 2010 or VC++ 6.0.
You should develop your code in Debug mode but test in Release mode before
submitting. The grader will test in Release mode. To make grading easier, your code should do one of the following:
#include "blepo.h" (In this case it does not matter where your blepo
directory is, because the grader can simply change the directory include
settings (Tools->Options->Directories->Include files) for Visual Studio
to automatically find the header file.)
#include "../blepo/src/blepo.h" (assuming your main file
is directly inside your directory). In other words, your assignment directory
should be at the same level as the blepo directory. Here is an example:
To turn in your assignment, send an email to
. Be sure to do the following:
- make the subject line "ECE847-1,#n" (without quotes but with the # sign),
where 'n' is the assignment number.
- cc the instructor and grader, so we have a record of your
submission in case something is wrong with the assign server. We cannot grade what we do not receive.
- send this email from your @clemson.edu account, because the assign server is
not smart enough to know who you are if you use another account.
- For example, do NOT use @g.clemson.edu. If you are using Gmail, it is not sufficient to
change the 'send mail as:' to @clemson.edu. Instead, either send from
webmail.clemson.edu or change your Gmail settings as follows:
- login to your account through gmail.com (not from Clemson's Google
- click on 'Settings . Settings . Accounts and Import'. Under 'Send mail as:',
select 'Add another email address', type in your email@example.com, click
'Next step', then select 'Send through clemson.edu SMTP servers', type 'smtp.clemson.edu' along with your userid and
password, select 'Secured connection using SSL', then 'Add account'.
- attach a zip file containing all the files needed to compile your project. But do NOT check in all
the other files that Visual Studio creates automatically. When in
doubt, check out your code to a new temporary directory and verify that it
compiles and runs. In other words,
- Do include files such as .h, .c, .cpp, .rc,
.vcxproj, .sln, ... (or .dsp and .dsw if using VC6.0). Also, if you have built an MFC Windows
application (as opposed to a console-based application), check in the res directory that contains .ico and .rc2
- Do NOT include these files: .aps, .clw, .ncb,
.opt, .plg, .suo, .sdf. Also, be
sure to delete the Debug and Release and ipch directories.
- include your report in the zip file (in any standard format
such as .pdf or .doc;
but NOT .docx).
Reports should be professionally written, with a title, a description of the
problem, a description of the algorithm, a detailed discussion of your
particular implementation, results, and analysis.
An example report. Similarly, code should
be professionally and cleanly written, making use of standard programming
- the body of the email is not important and may be left blank
All assignments are due at 11:59pm on the due date shown. An 8-hour grace
period is extended, so that no points will be deducted for anything submitted
before 8:00am the next morning.
- HW#1 (Floodfill)
- Implement the floodfill algorithm in C/C++. Create an executable
that allows the user to choose the filename and seed point; it is okay if you
hardcode the new color. The application should load the image from disk,
display the original image, run the algorithm, and display the resulting
image. (The specific interface is up to you: Either use command-line parameters,
such as: filename x y (in
that order), where 'filename' is the image filename and (x,y) are the
coordinates of the seed point; Or use a windows-based interface, such as
CFileDialog for selecting the file and GrabMouseClick for getting the seed
- To create a console app in Visual C++ 6.0, follow these instructions: File -> New ->
Project -> Win32 Console Application. Give it a name and keep the checkbox
on "Create new workspace". Choose "An application that supports MFC." Now
compile and run (Build -> Build ..., and Build -> Execute, or F7 and
Ctrl-F5). Under FileView -> Source Files you will find the main cpp file.
(Also, I would recommend that you turn off Precompiled Headers: Project ->
Settings -> C/C++ -> Precompiled headers -> Not using precompiled headers.
Before you click on the radio button, though, first select All
configurations in the drop down box so that both Debug and Release versions
- The images that the grader will use to test your code are
tillman.ppm, and others that are similar.
- Your code should work for either grayscale or color images, and it should allow the new value to be a Bgr color
(just load the image into ImgBgr, and treat it like a color image).
- For simplicity, use 4-neighbor connectedness (but 8-connected is fine,
too, if you want to do a little additional work).
- To make memory management easier, feel free to use std::stack or
- A tutorial on the Blepo library will be given in class. You may use
any part of the library except the Floodfill function itself.
- No report is due for this assignment.
- HW#2 (Fruit classification)
- Write code to automatically detect and classify fruit on a dark background.
- Implement double thresholding using two
thresholds that you determine by trial and error, which are hardcoded in your code.
- At any point before or during thresholding, perform noise removal (if
needed) using your own combination of erosion / dilation /
opening / closing.
- Implement connected components (by repeated applications of floodfill) to detect and count the foreground regions of
the graylevel image, distinguishing them from the background. Hint:
Use an ImgInt rather than
an ImgGray for the output labels, in case there are more than 256 regions due to
even if there are only a small number of objects in the image.
- Compute the properties of each foreground region, including
- zeroth-, first- and second-order moments (regular and centralized)
- compactness (To compute the area, simply count the number of pixels. To compute the perimeter, apply the logical XOR to the
thresholded image and the result of eroding this image with a 3x3 structuring
element of all ones; the result will be the number of 4-connected foreground
- * eccentricity (or elongatedness), using eigenvalues
- * direction, using either eigenvectors (PCA) or the moments formula (they are
- Using a combination of these properties or others that you develop, write an
algorithm to automatically classify each piece of fruit into one of three
categories: apple, grapefruit, and banana.
- * Also detect the banana stem using an idea that you come up with.
- Your output should look like this:
- One figure window should show the original image. Three additional figures
should show the result of thresholding the image with the low and high thresholds, along with the
output of double-thresholding. Be sure to set the title of each figure to an appropriate
human-readable string that indicates what is being displayed. Feel free to
display additional intermediate results in other figures if you like.
- In a final figure, display the original image with a one-pixel-thick boundary overlaid on each
object, the color of the boundary indicating the type of fruit: Red
indicates apple, green indicates grapefruit, and yellow indicates banana.
For each object, draw a cross at its centroid and draw* two perpendicular lines
(with appropriate lengths) to indicate the major and minor axes. Indicate the banana stem* by coloring
with magenta the
boundary pixels in that portion of the banana.
- Print out all the region properties you computed, either on the console
window (using printf, for example) or in the dialog window (using SetWindowText).
- The grader will test your code on the images fruit1.pgm
and fruit2.pgm (or, in BMP format,
fruit1.bmp and fruit2.bmp), along with other similar images
(same scale and lighting conditions, but the image dimensions, rotation, and
number of fruit instances may change). The same algorithm parameters should
be used for all objects and for both images.
- For this assignment, you may use any Blepo functions in ImageOperations.h,
except for the dilation and erosion functions. You may not use any Blepo functionality contained or
prototyped in ImageAlgorithms.h.
- As a debugging strategy, however, you may find it helpful to use various
Blepo functions (e.g., dilation, erosion, Floodfill, ConnectedComponents) as
stand-ins until you write your own versions.
- No report is due for this assignment.
Detailed grading breakdown is available in the
- A. Report is coherent, concise, clear, and neat, with correct
grammar and punctuation. Code works correctly the first time and
achieves good results on both images. All items marked (*)
- B. Report adequately
describes the work done, and code generally produces good results. There
are a small number of defects either in the implementation or the writeup, but
the essential components are there. Many or all items marked (*)
are not implemented.
- C. Report or code are
inadequate. The report contains major errors or is illegible, the code
does not run or produces significantly flawed results, or instructions are
- D or F. Report or code not attempted, not turned
in, or contains extremely serious deficiencies.
In your final project, you will investigate some area of image processing or computer vision in more detail. Typically
this will involve formulating a problem, reading the literature, proposing a solution, implementing the solution
(using the programming language/environment of your choice),
evaluating the results, and communicating your findings. In the case of a survey project, the quality and depth of
the literature review should be increased significantly to compensate for the lack of implementation.
- 11/2: team (1 or 2 people), title, and brief description
- 11/23: progress report (1 page)
final oral presentation in class during final exam slot, 8:00-10:30
final written report (5 pages)
To turn in your report, please send me a single email per group (do not email
the assign server) with two attachments:
Both files should have the same name, which should correspond somehow to
your topic. Use underscores instead of spaces. Do not send PPTX files.
Example: face_detection.pdf and face_detection.ppt.
You do *not* need to send me your code (although you may if you like).
- PDF file containing your 5-page report, conference format (title, authors,
abstract, introduction, method, experimental results, conclusion, references)
- PPT file containing your slides
Projects from previous years
Instructor: Stan Birchfield,
209 Riggs Hall, 656-5912, email: stb at clemson
Office hours: MWF afternoons
Grader: Brian Peasley, bpeasle at clemson
Lectures: 12:20 - 1:10 MWF, 223 Riggs Hall